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METACANON 0.7
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METACANON 0.7

This is not a greatest books list.

Metacanon is a database that offers an alternative to the genre of the greatest books list. Unlike lists compiled by individuals or small committees of experts, metacanon builds custom book lists by culling data from tens of thousands of scholarly texts. This data-driven approach results in a more comprehensive, flexible, and inclusive gateway into the canon(s).

Metacanon 0.7 is limited primarily to American fiction after 1800, but future updates will expand to include other areas, genres, and periods.

Use the menu below to generate your own version of the canon.

Presets:

19th Century
20th Century
1800 - Present
New York Times Archive

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AMERICAN FICTION 1800-2016

# Title Author Year Score
1Mark as read.Moby DickHerman Melville185130.54
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 2723 (10.84 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 3008 (7.81 points) | American Literature: 282 (6.46 points) | American Literary History: 50 (5.43 points)
2Mark as read.BelovedToni Morrison198727.15
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 2528 (10.62 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1612 (6.54 points) | American Literature: 29 (2.95 points) | American Literary History: 53 (5.54 points)
3Mark as read.Invisible ManRalph Ellison195226.15
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 2185 (10.19 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1183 (5.98 points) | American Literature: 45 (3.48 points) | American Literary History: 52 (5.50 points)
4Mark as read.Uncle Tom's CabinHarriet Beecher Stowe185225.96
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 1376 (8.92 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1912 (6.86 points) | American Literature: 68 (4.04 points) | American Literary History: 71 (6.15 points)
5Mark as read.The Scarlet LetterNathaniel Hawthorne185025.11
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 1552 (9.24 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1734 (6.67 points) | American Literature: 129 (5.02 points) | American Literary History: 25 (4.18 points)
6Mark as read.The Great GatsbyF. Scott Fitzgerald192523.31
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 2033 (9.98 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1004 (5.69 points) | American Literature: 69 (4.06 points) | American Literary History: 17 (3.58 points)
7Mark as read.The Portrait of a LadyHenry James188122.57
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 691 (7.28 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1715 (6.65 points) | American Literature: 164 (5.43 points) | American Literary History: 13 (3.20 points)
8Mark as read.Native SonRichard Wright194022.25
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 805 (7.62 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1832 (6.78 points) | American Literature: 47 (3.54 points) | American Literary History: 27 (4.31 points)
9Mark as read.Absalom, Absalom!William Faulkner193621.89
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 797 (7.60 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1110 (5.86 points) | American Literature: 110 (4.76 points) | American Literary History: 18 (3.67 points)
10Mark as read.Adventures of Huckleberry FinnMark Twain188421.73
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 2322 (10.37 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 811 (5.35 points) | American Literature: 39 (3.30 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
11Mark as read.The Sound and the FuryWilliam Faulkner192921.57
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 842 (7.72 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1320 (6.17 points) | American Literature: 124 (4.95 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
12Mark as read.The Color PurpleAlice Walker198220.89
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | National Book Award Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 1733 (9.53 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 482 (4.57 points) | American Literature: 9 (1.81 points) | American Literary History: 11 (2.97 points)
13Mark as read.Billy BuddHerman Melville189120.83
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 428 (6.30 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1129 (5.89 points) | American Literature: 125 (4.97 points) | American Literary History: 18 (3.67 points)
14Mark as read.The Grapes of WrathJohn Steinbeck193919.97
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 1298 (8.77 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 666 (5.04 points) | American Literature: 28 (2.91 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
15Mark as read.Their Eyes Were Watching GodZora Neale Hurston193719.86
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 1560 (9.25 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 643 (4.99 points) | American Literature: 13 (2.13 points) | American Literary History: 16 (3.49 points)
16Mark as read.The AmbassadorsHenry James190319.76
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 268 (5.45 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1555 (6.47 points) | American Literature: 163 (5.42 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
17Mark as read.TypeeHerman Melville184619.68
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 322 (5.77 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 916 (5.54 points) | American Literature: 112 (4.79 points) | American Literary History: 17 (3.58 points)
18Mark as read.The Golden BowlHenry James190419.40
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 168 (4.69 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1431 (6.31 points) | American Literature: 143 (5.19 points) | American Literary History: 13 (3.20 points)
19Mark as read.Gravity's RainbowThomas Pynchon197319.38
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 990 (8.10 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 521 (4.68 points) | American Literature: 27 (2.87 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
20Mark as read.The BostoniansHenry James188619.23
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 195 (4.92 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1115 (5.87 points) | American Literature: 100 (4.61 points) | American Literary History: 20 (3.83 points)
21Mark as read.Looking BackwardEdward Bellamy188819.12
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 1212 (8.60 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 924 (5.56 points) | American Literature: 17 (2.39 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
22Mark as read.The Turn of the ScrewHenry James189819.02
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 468 (6.48 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1494 (6.39 points) | American Literature: 121 (4.91 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
23Mark as read.The Red Badge of CourageStephen Crane189518.98
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 377 (6.06 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1028 (5.73 points) | American Literature: 100 (4.61 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
24Mark as read.The House of the Seven GablesNathaniel Hawthorne185118.80
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 501 (6.61 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 745 (5.21 points) | American Literature: 61 (3.88 points) | American Literary History: 12 (3.09 points)
25Mark as read.A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's CourtMark Twain188918.54
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 542 (6.77 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 668 (5.05 points) | American Literature: 43 (3.42 points) | American Literary History: 14 (3.30 points)
26Mark as read.The AwakeningKate Chopin189918.39
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 682 (7.25 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 644 (4.99 points) | American Literature: 35 (3.17 points) | American Literary History: 11 (2.97 points)
27Mark as read.Pudd'nhead WilsonMark Twain189418.32
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 187 (4.86 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 879 (5.48 points) | American Literature: 93 (4.50 points) | American Literary History: 16 (3.49 points)
28Mark as read.The Bluest EyeToni Morrison197018.24
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 1238 (8.65 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 597 (4.88 points) | American Literature: 13 (2.13 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
29Mark as read.JazzToni Morrison199218.17
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 304 (5.67 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1119 (5.88 points) | American Literature: 18 (2.44 points) | American Literary History: 25 (4.18 points)
30Mark as read.The AmericanHenry James187718.16*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus.
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 0 (0.00 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 17649 (7.97 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus. | American Literature: 928 (5.50 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus. | American Literary History: 183 (4.68 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus.

N-gram Frequency Correction: -81.64%
31Mark as read.Light in AugustWilliam Faulkner193218.12
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 336 (5.85 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 788 (5.30 points) | American Literature: 87 (4.40 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
32Mark as read.The Wings of the DoveHenry James190217.97
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 194 (4.92 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1162 (5.94 points) | American Literature: 117 (4.86 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
33Mark as read.A Farewell to ArmsErnest Hemingway192917.93
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 823 (7.67 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 617 (4.93 points) | American Literature: 56 (3.77 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
34Mark as read.NeuromancerWilliam Gibson198417.66
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 3134 (11.28 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 265 (3.80 points) | American Literature: 0 (0.00 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
35Mark as read.The House of MirthEdith Wharton190517.60
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 326 (5.79 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 773 (5.27 points) | American Literature: 40 (3.33 points) | American Literary History: 13 (3.20 points)
36Mark as read.The Blithedale RomanceNathaniel Hawthorne185217.53
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 308 (5.69 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 658 (5.02 points) | American Literature: 59 (3.84 points) | American Literary History: 11 (2.97 points)
37Mark as read.LolitaVladimir Nabokov195517.50
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 736 (7.42 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 811 (5.35 points) | American Literature: 9 (1.81 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
38Mark as read.The Adventures of Tom SawyerMark Twain187617.46
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 604 (7.00 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 791 (5.31 points) | American Literature: 33 (3.10 points) | American Literary History: 5 (2.05 points)
39Mark as read.Little WomenLouisa May Alcott186917.36
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 512 (6.65 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 642 (4.99 points) | American Literature: 24 (2.74 points) | American Literary History: 11 (2.97 points)
40Mark as read.Sister CarrieTheodore Dreiser190017.31
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 352 (5.93 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 612 (4.92 points) | American Literature: 55 (3.74 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
41Mark as read.The Sun Also RisesErnest Hemingway192617.22
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 620 (7.05 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 609 (4.91 points) | American Literature: 53 (3.69 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
42Mark as read.ConfidenceHenry James187916.95*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus.
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 5 (1.17 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 5812 (7.47 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus. | American Literature: 181 (4.27 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus. | American Literary History: 52 (4.04 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus.

N-gram Frequency Correction: -55.82%
43Mark as read.As I Lay DyingWilliam Faulkner193016.93
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 303 (5.66 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 699 (5.12 points) | American Literature: 71 (4.10 points) | American Literary History: 5 (2.05 points)
44Mark as read.RedburnHerman Melville184916.91
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 226 (5.16 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 540 (4.73 points) | American Literature: 68 (4.04 points) | American Literary History: 11 (2.97 points)
45Mark as read.Song of SolomonToni Morrison197716.90
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 467 (6.47 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 581 (4.84 points) | American Literature: 17 (2.39 points) | American Literary History: 13 (3.20 points)
46Mark as read.ParadiseToni Morrison199716.89
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 305 (5.67 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 927 (5.56 points) | American Literature: 11 (1.98 points) | American Literary History: 18 (3.67 points)
47Mark as read.Go Down, MosesWilliam Faulkner194216.87
Genre: Novel, Collection of Short Stories

Google Scholar: 240 (5.26 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 639 (4.98 points) | American Literature: 62 (3.91 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
48Mark as read.The Old Man and the SeaErnest Hemingway195216.84
Genre: Novella

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 554 (6.82 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 350 (4.15 points) | American Literature: 34 (3.14 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
49Mark as read.MardiHerman Melville184916.80
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 141 (4.43 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 720 (5.16 points) | American Literature: 112 (4.79 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
50Mark as read.The Last of the MohicansJames Fenimore Cooper182616.80
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 444 (6.37 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 579 (4.83 points) | American Literature: 27 (2.87 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
51Mark as read.White-JacketHerman Melville185016.79
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 204 (5.00 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 631 (4.96 points) | American Literature: 72 (4.12 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
52Mark as read.The Marble FaunNathaniel Hawthorne186016.79
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 187 (4.86 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 749 (5.22 points) | American Literature: 66 (3.99 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
53Mark as read.On the RoadJack Kerouac195716.70
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 772 (7.53 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 527 (4.70 points) | American Literature: 10 (1.90 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
54Mark as read.All the King's MenRobert Penn Warren194616.70
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 315 (5.73 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 452 (4.48 points) | American Literature: 37 (3.24 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
55Mark as read.The Crying of Lot 49Thomas Pynchon196616.60
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 773 (7.53 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 374 (4.23 points) | American Literature: 11 (1.98 points) | American Literary History: 10 (2.85 points)
56Mark as read.The Princess CasamassimaHenry James188616.38
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 159 (4.61 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 766 (5.26 points) | American Literature: 80 (4.27 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
57Mark as read.Tender is the NightF. Scott Fitzgerald193416.28
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 325 (5.79 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 509 (4.65 points) | American Literature: 43 (3.42 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
58Mark as read.Daisy MillerHenry James187816.27
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 124 (4.25 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 918 (5.55 points) | American Literature: 69 (4.06 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
59Mark as read.SulaToni Morrison197316.25
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 441 (6.36 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 548 (4.76 points) | American Literature: 12 (2.06 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
60Mark as read.Gone with the WindMargaret Mitchell193616.04
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 573 (6.89 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 254 (3.75 points) | American Literature: 11 (1.98 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
61Mark as read.White NoiseDon DeLillo198516.02
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 591 (6.95 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 210 (3.53 points) | American Literature: 3 (1.04 points) | American Literary History: 16 (3.49 points)
62Mark as read.The Age of InnocenceEdith Wharton192016.01
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 325 (5.79 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 556 (4.78 points) | American Literature: 36 (3.21 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
63Mark as read.To Kill a MockingbirdHarper Lee196015.98
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 1397 (8.96 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 120 (2.94 points) | American Literature: 0 (0.00 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
64Mark as read.The Professor's HouseWilla Cather192515.91
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 221 (5.13 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 414 (4.37 points) | American Literature: 40 (3.33 points) | American Literary History: 12 (3.09 points)
65Mark as read.Benito CerenoHerman Melville185515.90
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 98 (3.92 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 591 (4.86 points) | American Literature: 58 (3.81 points) | American Literary History: 14 (3.30 points)
66Mark as read.PassingNella Larsen192915.86
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 370 (6.02 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 409 (4.35 points) | American Literature: 10 (1.90 points) | American Literary History: 17 (3.58 points)
67Mark as read.The PioneersJames Fenimore Cooper182315.66
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 156 (4.58 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 665 (5.04 points) | American Literature: 29 (2.95 points) | American Literary History: 12 (3.09 points)
68Mark as read.The Confidence-ManHerman Melville185715.65
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 30 (2.56 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 778 (5.28 points) | American Literature: 100 (4.61 points) | American Literary History: 13 (3.20 points)
69Mark as read.The JungleUpton Sinclair190615.61
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 769 (7.52 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 261 (3.78 points) | American Literature: 12 (2.06 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
70Mark as read.ClotelWilliam Wells Brown185315.58
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 306 (5.68 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 357 (4.17 points) | American Literature: 10 (1.90 points) | American Literary History: 20 (3.83 points)
71Mark as read.In Our TimeErnest Hemingway192515.56
Genre: Collection of Short Stories

Google Scholar: 201 (4.97 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 613 (4.92 points) | American Literature: 43 (3.42 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
72Mark as read.The OctopusFrank Norris190115.47
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 279 (5.52 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 364 (4.20 points) | American Literature: 46 (3.51 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
73Mark as read.My AntoniaWilla Cather191815.46
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 253 (5.35 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 703 (5.12 points) | American Literature: 43 (3.42 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
74Mark as read.BabbittSinclair Lewis192215.45
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 238 (5.25 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 519 (4.68 points) | American Literature: 53 (3.69 points) | American Literary History: 4 (1.83 points)
75Mark as read.CaneJean Toomer192315.44
Genre: Novel, Other

Google Scholar: 158 (4.60 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 492 (4.60 points) | American Literature: 24 (2.74 points) | American Literary History: 16 (3.49 points)
76Mark as read.Death Comes for the ArchbishopWilla Cather192715.41
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 339 (5.86 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 438 (4.44 points) | American Literature: 38 (3.27 points) | American Literary History: 4 (1.83 points)
77Mark as read.Washington SquareHenry James188015.35
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 143 (4.45 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1067 (5.80 points) | American Literature: 47 (3.54 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
78Mark as read.Twice-Told TalesNathaniel Hawthorne183715.31
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 334 (5.84 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 434 (4.43 points) | American Literature: 45 (3.48 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
79Mark as read.An American TragedyTheodore Dreiser192515.30
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 238 (5.25 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 403 (4.33 points) | American Literature: 39 (3.30 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
80Mark as read.What Maisie KnewHenry James189714.97
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 172 (4.73 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 712 (5.14 points) | American Literature: 60 (3.86 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
81Mark as read.The Rise of Silas LaphamWilliam Dean Howells188514.96
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 169 (4.70 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 456 (4.50 points) | American Literature: 28 (2.91 points) | American Literary History: 10 (2.85 points)
82Mark as read.The Catcher in the RyeJ. D. Salinger195114.86
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 1234 (8.64 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 196 (3.45 points) | American Literature: 15 (2.27 points) | American Literary History: 0 (0.00 points)
83Mark as read.For Whom the Bell TollsErnest Hemingway194014.80
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 444 (6.37 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 445 (4.46 points) | American Literature: 35 (3.17 points) | American Literary History: 1 (0.79 points)
84Mark as read.Roderick HudsonHenry James187514.79
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 55 (3.21 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 731 (5.18 points) | American Literature: 84 (4.34 points) | American Literary History: 5 (2.05 points)
85Mark as read.Requiem for a NunWilliam Faulkner195114.79
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 365 (6.00 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 308 (3.98 points) | American Literature: 32 (3.07 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
86Mark as read.Slaughterhouse-FiveKurt Vonnegut196914.75
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 781 (7.55 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 233 (3.65 points) | American Literature: 9 (1.81 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
87Mark as read.DredHarriet Beecher Stowe185614.69
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 102 (3.98 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 775 (5.28 points) | American Literature: 13 (2.13 points) | American Literary History: 14 (3.30 points)
88Mark as read.HerzogSaul Bellow196414.64
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 201 (4.97 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 575 (4.82 points) | American Literature: 21 (2.60 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
89Mark as read.CeremonyLeslie Marmon Silko197714.58*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus.
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 806 (7.62 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 360 (3.48 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus. | American Literature: 6 (1.11 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus. | American Literary History: 12 (2.37 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus.

N-gram Frequency Correction: -44.29%
90Mark as read.Look Homeward, AngelThomas Wolfe192914.46
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 288 (5.57 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 539 (4.73 points) | American Literature: 28 (2.91 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
91Mark as read.Winesburg, OhioSherwood Anderson191914.43
Genre: Novel, Collection of Short Stories

Google Scholar: 220 (5.12 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 362 (4.19 points) | American Literature: 32 (3.07 points) | American Literary History: 5 (2.05 points)
92Mark as read.McTeagueFrank Norris189914.40
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 105 (4.02 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 505 (4.64 points) | American Literature: 35 (3.17 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
93Mark as read.The House on Mango StreetSandra Cisneros198414.40
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 1037 (8.21 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 171 (3.30 points) | American Literature: 2 (0.83 points) | American Literary History: 5 (2.05 points)
94Mark as read.Main StreetSinclair Lewis192014.31
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 172 (4.73 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 509 (4.65 points) | American Literature: 41 (3.36 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
95Mark as read.Catch-22Joseph Heller196114.17
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 710 (7.34 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 221 (3.59 points) | American Literature: 6 (1.50 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
96Mark as read.The Prince and the PauperMark Twain188114.13
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 100 (3.95 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 566 (4.80 points) | American Literature: 58 (3.81 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
97Mark as read.The VirginianOwen Wister190214.09
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 219 (5.11 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 517 (4.67 points) | American Literature: 12 (2.06 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
98Mark as read.A Hazard of New FortunesWilliam Dean Howells188914.07
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 120 (4.20 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 430 (4.42 points) | American Literature: 31 (3.03 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
99Mark as read.QuicksandNella Larsen192814.06
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 370 (6.02 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 253 (3.75 points) | American Literature: 8 (1.72 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
100Mark as read.Confessions of Nat TurnerWilliam Styron196713.99
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 270 (5.46 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 187 (3.40 points) | American Literature: 12 (2.06 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
# Score
1Mark as read.Moby Dick (1851)
Herman Melville
30.54
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 2723 (10.84 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 3008 (7.81 points) | American Literature: 282 (6.46 points) | American Literary History: 50 (5.43 points)
2Mark as read.Beloved (1987)
Toni Morrison
27.15
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 2528 (10.62 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1612 (6.54 points) | American Literature: 29 (2.95 points) | American Literary History: 53 (5.54 points)
3Mark as read.Invisible Man (1952)
Ralph Ellison
26.15
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 2185 (10.19 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1183 (5.98 points) | American Literature: 45 (3.48 points) | American Literary History: 52 (5.50 points)
4Mark as read.Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)
Harriet Beecher Stowe
25.96
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 1376 (8.92 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1912 (6.86 points) | American Literature: 68 (4.04 points) | American Literary History: 71 (6.15 points)
5Mark as read.The Scarlet Letter (1850)
Nathaniel Hawthorne
25.11
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 1552 (9.24 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1734 (6.67 points) | American Literature: 129 (5.02 points) | American Literary History: 25 (4.18 points)
6Mark as read.The Great Gatsby (1925)
F. Scott Fitzgerald
23.31
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 2033 (9.98 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1004 (5.69 points) | American Literature: 69 (4.06 points) | American Literary History: 17 (3.58 points)
7Mark as read.The Portrait of a Lady (1881)
Henry James
22.57
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 691 (7.28 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1715 (6.65 points) | American Literature: 164 (5.43 points) | American Literary History: 13 (3.20 points)
8Mark as read.Native Son (1940)
Richard Wright
22.25
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 805 (7.62 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1832 (6.78 points) | American Literature: 47 (3.54 points) | American Literary History: 27 (4.31 points)
9Mark as read.Absalom, Absalom! (1936)
William Faulkner
21.89
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 797 (7.60 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1110 (5.86 points) | American Literature: 110 (4.76 points) | American Literary History: 18 (3.67 points)
10Mark as read.Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884)
Mark Twain
21.73
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 2322 (10.37 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 811 (5.35 points) | American Literature: 39 (3.30 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
11Mark as read.The Sound and the Fury (1929)
William Faulkner
21.57
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 842 (7.72 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1320 (6.17 points) | American Literature: 124 (4.95 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
12Mark as read.The Color Purple (1982)
Alice Walker
20.89
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | National Book Award Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 1733 (9.53 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 482 (4.57 points) | American Literature: 9 (1.81 points) | American Literary History: 11 (2.97 points)
13Mark as read.Billy Budd (1891)
Herman Melville
20.83
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 428 (6.30 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1129 (5.89 points) | American Literature: 125 (4.97 points) | American Literary History: 18 (3.67 points)
14Mark as read.The Grapes of Wrath (1939)
John Steinbeck
19.97
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 1298 (8.77 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 666 (5.04 points) | American Literature: 28 (2.91 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
15Mark as read.Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937)
Zora Neale Hurston
19.86
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 1560 (9.25 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 643 (4.99 points) | American Literature: 13 (2.13 points) | American Literary History: 16 (3.49 points)
16Mark as read.The Ambassadors (1903)
Henry James
19.76
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 268 (5.45 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1555 (6.47 points) | American Literature: 163 (5.42 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
17Mark as read.Typee (1846)
Herman Melville
19.68
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 322 (5.77 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 916 (5.54 points) | American Literature: 112 (4.79 points) | American Literary History: 17 (3.58 points)
18Mark as read.The Golden Bowl (1904)
Henry James
19.40
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 168 (4.69 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1431 (6.31 points) | American Literature: 143 (5.19 points) | American Literary History: 13 (3.20 points)
19Mark as read.Gravity's Rainbow (1973)
Thomas Pynchon
19.38
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 990 (8.10 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 521 (4.68 points) | American Literature: 27 (2.87 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
20Mark as read.The Bostonians (1886)
Henry James
19.23
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 195 (4.92 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1115 (5.87 points) | American Literature: 100 (4.61 points) | American Literary History: 20 (3.83 points)
21Mark as read.Looking Backward (1888)
Edward Bellamy
19.12
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 1212 (8.60 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 924 (5.56 points) | American Literature: 17 (2.39 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
22Mark as read.The Turn of the Screw (1898)
Henry James
19.02
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 468 (6.48 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1494 (6.39 points) | American Literature: 121 (4.91 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
23Mark as read.The Red Badge of Courage (1895)
Stephen Crane
18.98
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 377 (6.06 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1028 (5.73 points) | American Literature: 100 (4.61 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
24Mark as read.The House of the Seven Gables (1851)
Nathaniel Hawthorne
18.80
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 501 (6.61 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 745 (5.21 points) | American Literature: 61 (3.88 points) | American Literary History: 12 (3.09 points)
25Mark as read.A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889)
Mark Twain
18.54
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 542 (6.77 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 668 (5.05 points) | American Literature: 43 (3.42 points) | American Literary History: 14 (3.30 points)
26Mark as read.The Awakening (1899)
Kate Chopin
18.39
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 682 (7.25 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 644 (4.99 points) | American Literature: 35 (3.17 points) | American Literary History: 11 (2.97 points)
27Mark as read.Pudd'nhead Wilson (1894)
Mark Twain
18.32
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 187 (4.86 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 879 (5.48 points) | American Literature: 93 (4.50 points) | American Literary History: 16 (3.49 points)
28Mark as read.The Bluest Eye (1970)
Toni Morrison
18.24
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 1238 (8.65 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 597 (4.88 points) | American Literature: 13 (2.13 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
29Mark as read.Jazz (1992)
Toni Morrison
18.17
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 304 (5.67 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1119 (5.88 points) | American Literature: 18 (2.44 points) | American Literary History: 25 (4.18 points)
30Mark as read.The American (1877)
Henry James
18.16*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus.
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 0 (0.00 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 17649 (7.97 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus. | American Literature: 928 (5.50 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus. | American Literary History: 183 (4.68 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus.

N-gram Frequency Correction: -81.64%
31Mark as read.Light in August (1932)
William Faulkner
18.12
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 336 (5.85 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 788 (5.30 points) | American Literature: 87 (4.40 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
32Mark as read.The Wings of the Dove (1902)
Henry James
17.97
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 194 (4.92 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1162 (5.94 points) | American Literature: 117 (4.86 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
33Mark as read.A Farewell to Arms (1929)
Ernest Hemingway
17.93
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 823 (7.67 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 617 (4.93 points) | American Literature: 56 (3.77 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
34Mark as read.Neuromancer (1984)
William Gibson
17.66
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 3134 (11.28 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 265 (3.80 points) | American Literature: 0 (0.00 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
35Mark as read.The House of Mirth (1905)
Edith Wharton
17.60
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 326 (5.79 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 773 (5.27 points) | American Literature: 40 (3.33 points) | American Literary History: 13 (3.20 points)
36Mark as read.The Blithedale Romance (1852)
Nathaniel Hawthorne
17.53
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 308 (5.69 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 658 (5.02 points) | American Literature: 59 (3.84 points) | American Literary History: 11 (2.97 points)
37Mark as read.Lolita (1955)
Vladimir Nabokov
17.50
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 736 (7.42 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 811 (5.35 points) | American Literature: 9 (1.81 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
38Mark as read.The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876)
Mark Twain
17.46
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 604 (7.00 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 791 (5.31 points) | American Literature: 33 (3.10 points) | American Literary History: 5 (2.05 points)
39Mark as read.Little Women (1869)
Louisa May Alcott
17.36
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 512 (6.65 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 642 (4.99 points) | American Literature: 24 (2.74 points) | American Literary History: 11 (2.97 points)
40Mark as read.Sister Carrie (1900)
Theodore Dreiser
17.31
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 352 (5.93 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 612 (4.92 points) | American Literature: 55 (3.74 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
41Mark as read.The Sun Also Rises (1926)
Ernest Hemingway
17.22
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 620 (7.05 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 609 (4.91 points) | American Literature: 53 (3.69 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
42Mark as read.Confidence (1879)
Henry James
16.95*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus.
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 5 (1.17 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 5812 (7.47 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus. | American Literature: 181 (4.27 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus. | American Literary History: 52 (4.04 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus.

N-gram Frequency Correction: -55.82%
43Mark as read.As I Lay Dying (1930)
William Faulkner
16.93
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 303 (5.66 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 699 (5.12 points) | American Literature: 71 (4.10 points) | American Literary History: 5 (2.05 points)
44Mark as read.Redburn (1849)
Herman Melville
16.91
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 226 (5.16 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 540 (4.73 points) | American Literature: 68 (4.04 points) | American Literary History: 11 (2.97 points)
45Mark as read.Song of Solomon (1977)
Toni Morrison
16.90
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 467 (6.47 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 581 (4.84 points) | American Literature: 17 (2.39 points) | American Literary History: 13 (3.20 points)
46Mark as read.Paradise (1997)
Toni Morrison
16.89
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 305 (5.67 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 927 (5.56 points) | American Literature: 11 (1.98 points) | American Literary History: 18 (3.67 points)
47Mark as read.Go Down, Moses (1942)
William Faulkner
16.87
Genre: Novel, Collection of Short Stories

Google Scholar: 240 (5.26 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 639 (4.98 points) | American Literature: 62 (3.91 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
48Mark as read.The Old Man and the Sea (1952)
Ernest Hemingway
16.84
Genre: Novella

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 554 (6.82 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 350 (4.15 points) | American Literature: 34 (3.14 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
49Mark as read.Mardi (1849)
Herman Melville
16.80
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 141 (4.43 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 720 (5.16 points) | American Literature: 112 (4.79 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
50Mark as read.The Last of the Mohicans (1826)
James Fenimore Cooper
16.80
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 444 (6.37 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 579 (4.83 points) | American Literature: 27 (2.87 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
51Mark as read.White-Jacket (1850)
Herman Melville
16.79
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 204 (5.00 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 631 (4.96 points) | American Literature: 72 (4.12 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
52Mark as read.The Marble Faun (1860)
Nathaniel Hawthorne
16.79
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 187 (4.86 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 749 (5.22 points) | American Literature: 66 (3.99 points) | American Literary History: 9 (2.72 points)
53Mark as read.On the Road (1957)
Jack Kerouac
16.70
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 772 (7.53 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 527 (4.70 points) | American Literature: 10 (1.90 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
54Mark as read.All the King's Men (1946)
Robert Penn Warren
16.70
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 315 (5.73 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 452 (4.48 points) | American Literature: 37 (3.24 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
55Mark as read.The Crying of Lot 49 (1966)
Thomas Pynchon
16.60
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 773 (7.53 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 374 (4.23 points) | American Literature: 11 (1.98 points) | American Literary History: 10 (2.85 points)
56Mark as read.The Princess Casamassima (1886)
Henry James
16.38
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 159 (4.61 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 766 (5.26 points) | American Literature: 80 (4.27 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
57Mark as read.Tender is the Night (1934)
F. Scott Fitzgerald
16.28
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 325 (5.79 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 509 (4.65 points) | American Literature: 43 (3.42 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
58Mark as read.Daisy Miller (1878)
Henry James
16.27
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 124 (4.25 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 918 (5.55 points) | American Literature: 69 (4.06 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
59Mark as read.Sula (1973)
Toni Morrison
16.25
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 441 (6.36 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 548 (4.76 points) | American Literature: 12 (2.06 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
60Mark as read.Gone with the Wind (1936)
Margaret Mitchell
16.04
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 573 (6.89 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 254 (3.75 points) | American Literature: 11 (1.98 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
61Mark as read.White Noise (1985)
Don DeLillo
16.02
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 591 (6.95 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 210 (3.53 points) | American Literature: 3 (1.04 points) | American Literary History: 16 (3.49 points)
62Mark as read.The Age of Innocence (1920)
Edith Wharton
16.01
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 325 (5.79 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 556 (4.78 points) | American Literature: 36 (3.21 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
63Mark as read.To Kill a Mockingbird (1960)
Harper Lee
15.98
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 1397 (8.96 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 120 (2.94 points) | American Literature: 0 (0.00 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
64Mark as read.The Professor's House (1925)
Willa Cather
15.91
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 221 (5.13 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 414 (4.37 points) | American Literature: 40 (3.33 points) | American Literary History: 12 (3.09 points)
65Mark as read.Benito Cereno (1855)
Herman Melville
15.90
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 98 (3.92 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 591 (4.86 points) | American Literature: 58 (3.81 points) | American Literary History: 14 (3.30 points)
66Mark as read.Passing (1929)
Nella Larsen
15.86
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 370 (6.02 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 409 (4.35 points) | American Literature: 10 (1.90 points) | American Literary History: 17 (3.58 points)
67Mark as read.The Pioneers (1823)
James Fenimore Cooper
15.66
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 156 (4.58 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 665 (5.04 points) | American Literature: 29 (2.95 points) | American Literary History: 12 (3.09 points)
68Mark as read.The Confidence-Man (1857)
Herman Melville
15.65
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 30 (2.56 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 778 (5.28 points) | American Literature: 100 (4.61 points) | American Literary History: 13 (3.20 points)
69Mark as read.The Jungle (1906)
Upton Sinclair
15.61
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 769 (7.52 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 261 (3.78 points) | American Literature: 12 (2.06 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
70Mark as read.Clotel (1853)
William Wells Brown
15.58
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 306 (5.68 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 357 (4.17 points) | American Literature: 10 (1.90 points) | American Literary History: 20 (3.83 points)
71Mark as read.In Our Time (1925)
Ernest Hemingway
15.56
Genre: Collection of Short Stories

Google Scholar: 201 (4.97 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 613 (4.92 points) | American Literature: 43 (3.42 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
72Mark as read.The Octopus (1901)
Frank Norris
15.47
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 279 (5.52 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 364 (4.20 points) | American Literature: 46 (3.51 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
73Mark as read.My Antonia (1918)
Willa Cather
15.46
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 253 (5.35 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 703 (5.12 points) | American Literature: 43 (3.42 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
74Mark as read.Babbitt (1922)
Sinclair Lewis
15.45
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 238 (5.25 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 519 (4.68 points) | American Literature: 53 (3.69 points) | American Literary History: 4 (1.83 points)
75Mark as read.Cane (1923)
Jean Toomer
15.44
Genre: Novel, Other

Google Scholar: 158 (4.60 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 492 (4.60 points) | American Literature: 24 (2.74 points) | American Literary History: 16 (3.49 points)
76Mark as read.Death Comes for the Archbishop (1927)
Willa Cather
15.41
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 339 (5.86 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 438 (4.44 points) | American Literature: 38 (3.27 points) | American Literary History: 4 (1.83 points)
77Mark as read.Washington Square (1880)
Henry James
15.35
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 143 (4.45 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 1067 (5.80 points) | American Literature: 47 (3.54 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
78Mark as read.Twice-Told Tales (1837)
Nathaniel Hawthorne
15.31
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 334 (5.84 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 434 (4.43 points) | American Literature: 45 (3.48 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
79Mark as read.An American Tragedy (1925)
Theodore Dreiser
15.30
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 238 (5.25 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 403 (4.33 points) | American Literature: 39 (3.30 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
80Mark as read.What Maisie Knew (1897)
Henry James
14.97
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 172 (4.73 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 712 (5.14 points) | American Literature: 60 (3.86 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
81Mark as read.The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885)
William Dean Howells
14.96
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 169 (4.70 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 456 (4.50 points) | American Literature: 28 (2.91 points) | American Literary History: 10 (2.85 points)
82Mark as read.The Catcher in the Rye (1951)
J. D. Salinger
14.86
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 1234 (8.64 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 196 (3.45 points) | American Literature: 15 (2.27 points) | American Literary History: 0 (0.00 points)
83Mark as read.For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940)
Ernest Hemingway
14.80
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 444 (6.37 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 445 (4.46 points) | American Literature: 35 (3.17 points) | American Literary History: 1 (0.79 points)
84Mark as read.Roderick Hudson (1875)
Henry James
14.79
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 55 (3.21 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 731 (5.18 points) | American Literature: 84 (4.34 points) | American Literary History: 5 (2.05 points)
85Mark as read.Requiem for a Nun (1951)
William Faulkner
14.79
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 365 (6.00 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 308 (3.98 points) | American Literature: 32 (3.07 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
86Mark as read.Slaughterhouse-Five (1969)
Kurt Vonnegut
14.75
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 781 (7.55 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 233 (3.65 points) | American Literature: 9 (1.81 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
87Mark as read.Dred (1856)
Harriet Beecher Stowe
14.69
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 102 (3.98 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 775 (5.28 points) | American Literature: 13 (2.13 points) | American Literary History: 14 (3.30 points)
88Mark as read.Herzog (1964)
Saul Bellow
14.64
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Winner (1.00 point) | Google Scholar: 201 (4.97 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 575 (4.82 points) | American Literature: 21 (2.60 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
89Mark as read.Ceremony (1977)
Leslie Marmon Silko
14.58*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus.
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 806 (7.62 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 360 (3.48 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus. | American Literature: 6 (1.11 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus. | American Literary History: 12 (2.37 points)*Score adjusted to correct for title consisting of an n-gram occuring with high frequency in the English language corpus.

N-gram Frequency Correction: -44.29%
90Mark as read.Look Homeward, Angel (1929)
Thomas Wolfe
14.46
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 288 (5.57 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 539 (4.73 points) | American Literature: 28 (2.91 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
91Mark as read.Winesburg, Ohio (1919)
Sherwood Anderson
14.43
Genre: Novel, Collection of Short Stories

Google Scholar: 220 (5.12 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 362 (4.19 points) | American Literature: 32 (3.07 points) | American Literary History: 5 (2.05 points)
92Mark as read.McTeague (1899)
Frank Norris
14.40
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 105 (4.02 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 505 (4.64 points) | American Literature: 35 (3.17 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
93Mark as read.The House on Mango Street (1984)
Sandra Cisneros
14.40
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 1037 (8.21 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 171 (3.30 points) | American Literature: 2 (0.83 points) | American Literary History: 5 (2.05 points)
94Mark as read.Main Street (1920)
Sinclair Lewis
14.31
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 172 (4.73 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 509 (4.65 points) | American Literature: 41 (3.36 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
95Mark as read.Catch-22 (1961)
Joseph Heller
14.17
Genre: Novel

National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 710 (7.34 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 221 (3.59 points) | American Literature: 6 (1.50 points) | American Literary History: 2 (1.24 points)
96Mark as read.The Prince and the Pauper (1881)
Mark Twain
14.13
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 100 (3.95 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 566 (4.80 points) | American Literature: 58 (3.81 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)
97Mark as read.The Virginian (1902)
Owen Wister
14.09
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 219 (5.11 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 517 (4.67 points) | American Literature: 12 (2.06 points) | American Literary History: 6 (2.25 points)
98Mark as read.A Hazard of New Fortunes (1889)
William Dean Howells
14.07
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 120 (4.20 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 430 (4.42 points) | American Literature: 31 (3.03 points) | American Literary History: 7 (2.42 points)
99Mark as read.Quicksand (1928)
Nella Larsen
14.06
Genre: Novel

Google Scholar: 370 (6.02 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 253 (3.75 points) | American Literature: 8 (1.72 points) | American Literary History: 8 (2.58 points)
100Mark as read.Confessions of Nat Turner (1967)
William Styron
13.99
Genre: Novel

Pulitzer Prize Winner (1.00 point) | National Book Award Finalist (0.50 points) | Google Scholar: 270 (5.46 points) | JSTOR (Language and Literature): 187 (3.40 points) | American Literature: 12 (2.06 points) | American Literary History: 3 (1.57 points)

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N-gram Frequency Correction.

Titles consisting of words or phrases that are exceedingly common in the English language corpus (such as Stephen King's It or Joyce Carol Oates's them) tend to be overrepresented in search results, thus resulting in an articially inflated citation count. To counteract this tendency, Metacanon adjusts the scores for these works accordingly. Scores subjected to n-gram frequency correction are estimates only and are marked with an asterisk. N-gram freqencies are drawn from the Corpus of Contemporary American English, a project created by Mark Davies.


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Non-unique author Correction.

Books by authors with a non-unique name (for example "Winston Churchill," the American novelist) tend to be overrepresented in search results, thus resulting in an articially inflated citation count. To counteract this tendency, Metacanon adjusts the scores for these works accordingly. Scores subjected to non-unique author correction are estimates only and are marked with a dagger.


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